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Explain the work of Coaxial Cable and Twisted Pair Cable with diagram in detail.

1. Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial cable consists of a central conductor, an insulating layer, a metal shield, and an outer insulating layer. Here is a detailed description:

Central conductor: It is usually made of copper or aluminum and carries the signal. It runs along the center of the cable.

Insulating layer: There is an insulating layer around the central conductor, often made of plastic, which prevents the signal from leaking out and also protects the conductor from damage.

Metallic shield: Outside the insulation layer, there is a metallic shield, usually made of aluminum or copper. This shield acts as a barrier against external electromagnetic interference, ensuring that the signal remains intact and free from distortion.

Outer insulating layer: Finally, the entire cable is covered with an outer insulating layer, which provides further protection and insulation.

Working Principle:

In a coaxial cable, the signal travels along the central conductor in the form of electrical impulses. The surrounding metal shield acts as a barrier, preventing interference from external sources such as electrical devices or radio signals. This design makes coaxial cable ideal for transmitting high-frequency signals with minimal loss and interference.

2. Twisted Pair Cable:

Twisted pair cable consists of pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together. There are two main types: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP).

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP): In UTP cable, each pair of wires is twisted together without any additional shielding.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP): STP cables have an additional layer of shielding, usually made of metal foil or braided copper, to protect against electromagnetic interference.

Working Principle:

Twisted pairs in cables help reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk. When a signal is transmitted through one wire in the pair, the winding helps cancel out any electromagnetic interference picked up by the other wire. This results in clear communications and less signal loss.

Compare:

Bandwidth and Speed: Coaxial cables typically provide higher bandwidth and faster transmission speeds than twisted pair cables, making them suitable for applications such as cable television and broadband Internet.

Cost: Twisted pair cables are generally less expensive than coaxial cables, making them a more economical choice for many networking applications.

Flexibility: Twisted pair cables are more flexible and easier to install than coaxial cables, which can be thicker and less malleable.

Diagram:

Coaxial Cable and Twisted Pair Cable

A simplified diagram showing the structure of both coaxial cable and twisted pair cable is given below:

Coaxial Cable and Twisted Pair Cable

In a twisted pair cable diagram, each pair of wires (pair 1, pair 2, etc.) are twisted together to reduce interference, and the entire cable is covered with insulation.

I hope this explanation and diagram will help you understand the workings of coaxial cable and twisted pair cable! If you have any further questions please don’t hesitate to ask.

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