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Explain Asynchronous and synchronous transmission in detail.

Explain Asynchronous and synchronous transmission in detail.

Explain Asynchronous and synchronous transmission in detail.

Asynchronous and synchronous transmission are two methods used to transfer information between devices in data communications. They differ in the way they synchronize the time of data transmission. Let’s explore each method in detail:

1. Asynchronous Transmission:

In asynchronous transmission, data is sent one character at a time, with each character preceded by a start bit and followed by one or more stop bits. This method does not require both the sender and receiver to be synchronized with each other with respect to time. Instead, each character is sent independently, allowing flexibility in transmission rates and the ability to handle variable-length intervals between characters.

Main aspects of asynchronous transmission:

Start and Stop Bits: Each character is represented by start and stop bits, which indicate the beginning and end of the character, respectively. The start bit is always logic low (0), while the stop bit is always logic high (1).

Variable-length interval: Asynchronous transmission allows variable-length intervals between characters, making it suitable for transmitting data with irregular timing or when the exact timing of data transmission is not important.

Simple implementation: Asynchronous transmission is relatively simple to implement and is commonly used in serial communication interfaces such as RS-232.

Overhead: The inclusion of start and stop bits increases the overhead of data transmission, reducing the effective data transfer rate compared to synchronous transmission.

2. Synchronous Transmission:

In synchronous transmission, data is sent in a continuous stream without start or stop bits. Instead, the sender and receiver must be synchronized with each other using a common clock signal. This synchronization ensures that data is transmitted and received at the correct time interval, allowing higher data transfer rates and more efficient use of the communication channel.

Main aspects of synchronous transmission:

Clock Synchronization: Synchronous transmission requires both the sender and receiver to synchronize with a common clock signal. This ensures that data is transmitted and received at precise time intervals, eliminating the need for start and stop bits.

Higher data transfer rates: Synchronous transmission typically allows higher data transfer rates than asynchronous transmission, because there is no overhead associated with start and stop bits.

Complex implementation: Implementing synchronous transmission requires more complex hardware and software, as both the sender and receiver must maintain synchronization with each other using a clock signal.

Continuous data stream: Data is transmitted in a continuous stream without interruption, allowing more efficient use of the communication channel.

Compare:

Timing: Asynchronous transmission does not require strict time synchronization between the sender and receiver, while synchronous transmission depends on precise time synchronization using a common clock signal.

Overhead: Asynchronous transmission incurs overhead due to the inclusion of start and stop bits, whereas synchronous transmission has less overhead because it does not require these additional bits.

Data Transfer Rate: Synchronous transmission generally allows higher data transfer rates than asynchronous transmission due to more efficient use of the communication channel.

In short, asynchronous transmission is suitable for applications where time synchronization is not important or where variable-length intervals between characters are necessary. On the other hand, synchronous transmission is preferred for applications requiring high data transfer rates and strict time synchronization between the sender and the receiver.

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